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雅思寫作:大作文開頭段引言方式

很多考生拿到大作文考題都不知道怎樣動筆去寫開頭段,有的會把題目原封不動抄下來,但如果這樣做,在統計作文字數時,第一段就不被統計在內了。實際上,大作文的第一段是情景鋪墊,雅思專家建議考生在這一段要點明這篇文章要討論/解決什么問題及問題的背景。作文的首段通常包含以下幾個方面:

1)場景或背景信息,即題目中出現的phenomenon。

2)一些人的觀點(some people’s opinion),這部分在改寫文章首段時可要可不要,考生可按照自己的情況來安排。

3)個人觀點,這一部分在有些文章的開首段中也可以不要。


大作文要求字數至少達到250字,在寫作中考慮到字數的合理安排,第一段最好寫3-5句話,大約40字左右,并且切忌在第一段就掏心掏肺把什么話都說完。因此雅思專家總結出大作文開首方式通常有以下幾種情況:

1)題目中包含了背景信息(phenomenon),有時也出現一些人的觀點,并且題目中字數較多。這種情況下最保險的辦法是將題目中的背景信息及一些人的觀點重新表達(paraphrase),可以做:


●主動語態<=>被動語態

●主謂賓<=>主系表

●某些近義詞互換


Example:

At present, it is hard for college students to find jobs. Many people claim that college teachers should give priority to practical courses like computer science and business over such traditional ones as history and geography. To what extent do you agree?


The number of college graduates is surging while a substantial proportion of them have difficulties in finding employment after their graduation. Numerous people blame this on the university education and believe that more emphasis should be laid on practical courses such as computer science and business than on traditional courses like history and geography. 其后再加考生自己的觀點即可。


2)題目中包含了背景信息,有時出現一些人的觀點,但題目中字數較少,若直接重新表達,字數湊不到40字左右。這種情況下雅思專家推薦以下2種開首方式來保證字數:


把籠統信息細節化即通過舉例來解釋說明題目中的背景信息。


Example:

International tourism has become a big industry in the world. Do the benefits outweigh the problems?


The acceleration of globalization and high-tech development contributes to International tourism’s gaining momentum virtually all over the world. Each yearmillions of tourists from other countries swarm into china to appreciate the scenery and Chinese traditional culture.其后加入考生個人觀點即可。

 

追溯歷史,過去與現在形成對比。


Example:

International tourism has become a big industry in the world. Do the benefits outweigh the problems?


Prior to the early 1900s, the proportion of people traveling abroad was considerably low and the majority of them preferred domestic travel. However, the advent of the motorized flight has greatly changed our life and it makes international traveling more convenient. International tourism is gaining momentum and has become a big industry. 其后加入考生個人觀點即可。


3)題目中僅出現一部分人的觀點,而沒有背景信息。這種情況下,我們可以根據這部分人的觀點所涉及的信息在開首段附加對背景信息的描述。


Example:

The best way to solve the world’s environmental problem is to increase the price of fuel. Do you agree or disagree?


In the process of industrialization and urbanization, the scope of environmental problem facing the world is getting immense. From Mexico City and New York to Singapore and China new solutions to this problem are being proposed, tried and implemented. Some people believe increasing the price of fuel is the best approach to this problem. 其后加入考生個人觀點即可。


另外,雅思專家要提醒考生注意的是開首段一定要避免出現語法錯誤,因為如果語法錯誤影響文章的理解,那會給考官留下極差的第一印象,而考官也就沒有信心繼續往下讀了,最終大作文的得分也不會很高。


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