曾道人 句解特|曾道人109期资料

提高雅思寫作能力的有效途徑:研習范文

眾所周知,雅思寫作往往是廣大雅思考生感到最頭疼的一個部分,也是得分最低的一項。以2008年為例,根據雅思官方的資料,08年中國大陸雅思考生平均成績5.46分,其中寫作最低,僅5.12分。

  造成這一現象的原因是多方面的,其中一個很重要的原因在于,很多學生只是注重考試技巧,對所謂“模板”趨之若鶩,而不是去著手提高語言能力。實際上,考試技巧固然重要,但是要想真正在寫作考試中取得理想成績,還得從根本上去提高語言能力,因為從根本上來說,雅思寫作考試考察的是考生能否用符合邏輯的語言去表達觀點的能力。如果沒有打下良好的語言基礎,那么所謂的考試技巧都將成為空中樓閣,徒有空架子而沒有內容。對于很多考生而言,文章章法(即文章的行文思路、布局謀篇、結構安排、邏輯順序)和想觀點也許不是最難的,難的是用具體的語言去表達觀點。

  那么該怎樣去提高語言表達能力呢?研習、背誦和模仿范文(包括其他優秀英文文章)是個有效的途徑。這是因為:寫作是個語言輸出的過程,而要想保證輸出的質量,就一定要保證有大量、高質量的輸入。研習和背誦范文就是這樣的一個輸入和積累的過程。當然,首先要搞清楚研習范文的含義。所謂研習范文,絕非僅僅是把別人的文章看懂,而是要本著獨立思考的精神,根據自己的實際情況,研究并吸取范文中精華的部分。換句話說,就是要把范文中的漂亮詞匯和句型(但不限于詞匯和句型)通過背誦和重復記憶內化成自己的東西,以便在以后寫作中的用到。所以,這個過程體現要體現出研習范文之后對今后寫作的影響。只有這樣做,才能從根本上避免很多同學把輸入范文和輸出寫作割裂開來的誤區,從而做到“范文好,我的作文也好”,并最終實現“大家好,才是真的好”的喜人場面。

  接下來,以研習劍六G類的B篇考官范文為例,說明這個問題。

  范文:劍六, P172

  Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on young children。

  Do you agree or disagree?

  I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day. This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for。

  However, the main concern is about the type of computer activities that attract children. These are often electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent. The player is usually the “hero” of the game and too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centered and insensitive to others。

  Even when children use a computer of other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences is an important part of a children’s development that cannot be provided by a computer。

  In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the world today. Therefore it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives。

  I think the main point is to make sure the young children do not overuse computers. Parents must ensure that their children learn to enjoy other kinds of activity and not simply sit at home, learning to live in a virtual world。

 

  研習過程:范文原句→啟示→對寫作的影響(模仿句)

  1. 觀點不絕對

  a。范文原句:

  I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day。

  b。啟示:這句話中用到了tend to agree 這個短語,表示“傾向于同意”,表現出不絕對的語氣。

  c。對寫作的影響(模仿范句):

  I am inclined to think that…; I tend to believe that…

  2。措辭嚴謹

  a范文原句: This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for。

  b。啟示:副詞partly,貌似簡單,但是實際上大多數考生沒有用過。這個副詞雖小,但是表達的意思是:這里列舉的原因只是一部分,體現出了寫作的嚴謹。

  c。對寫作的影響(模仿范句):

  中文例句:因為道路體系不好,所以大城市堵車。

  未模仿前:The traffic congestion is because of the poor road system。

  模仿后:The traffic congestion is partly because of the poor road system。

  類似表達:be largely due to

  3。對抽象名詞的解釋、舉例,細化抽象名詞:

  a。范文原句: Even when children use a computer of other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends…

  b. purpose比較抽象,such as getting information or emailing friends屬于對purpose內容的解釋,通過對抽象名詞的細化,一方面可以把湊點字數,把句子寫得比較長,另一方面,使得句子更細節化。

  c。對寫作的影響(模仿范句):

  中文例句1:有些技術會有負面影響。

  未模仿前:Some technologies are of negative impact. →

  模仿后:Some technologies, such as weapons of mass destruction, are of negative impact。

  類似細化抽象名詞的表達:from…to…; whether…or…;

  中文例句2.:我在中國的那幾年,有機會跟中國的翻譯們緊密地合作。

  未模仿前:During those years when I was in China, I had the opportunity to work closely with Chinese translators. →

  模仿后:During those years when I was in China, I had the opportunity to work closely with Chinese translators, from beginners fresh out of school to those most capable senior professors。

  例句3.:政府該重視教育。

  未模仿前:Governments should attach great importance to education.→

  未模仿后:Governments, whether rich or poor, should attach great importance to education。

  4。積累漂亮詞匯:(1)精彩詞匯(2)主題詞匯

  (1)精彩詞匯

  a。范文原句: Too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centered and insensitive to others。

  b:啟示: exposure 用得非常地道,一般考生不會想到,同時這個詞做主語,構成了無靈主語(非人稱開頭)。

  c。對寫作的影響(模仿范句):

  中文例句:小孩在網絡上接觸到太多不良信息對他們的成長不好。

  未模仿前:If children get access to too much undesirable information on the Internet, then it would undermine their personal growth. / Gaining too much undesirable information on the Internet would undermine their personal growth。

  模仿后:Heavy exposure to undesirable information on the Internet would undermine the personal growth of children。

  (2)主題詞匯(電視電腦類話題): self-centered, insensitive

  5。積累精彩句型:

  a。范文原句: Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology

  b。此句寫得很地道,句型精彩,而且適合模仿,in terms of 后可跟不同的詞。

  c。對寫作的影響(模仿范句):

  中文例句:當今世界,科技進步日新月異。

  模仿前:In contemporary society, science and technology are advancing rapidly→

  模仿后:The world we are living in is changing constantly in terms of science technology。(in terms of globalization / urbanization / fashion…)

  英語寫作能力的提高是一個長期的系統工程,上面所展示的對范文語言的研習和模仿只是其中一個片段。盡管如此,這種研習和模仿范文的思路和方法卻是提高寫作能力的根本途徑之一。若雅思考生能多給寫作留點備考時間,注重積累,將上述方法其融入到自己的學習實踐中,夯實語言基礎,便能真正實現從輸入到輸出的升華,不僅順利通過雅思考試,而且還使得英語寫作成為一項伴隨一生的技能。


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