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雅思考官青睞的背景句寫作 分享使用句型

I 背景介紹:

無論是大多數考生備考雅思的過程中,還是從歷年來雅思考試四項的中國考生平均分,都可以反映出中國考生在雅思寫作方面的薄弱。因為寫作是最能體現個人的語言運用能力和水平的,所以不像其他課程可以通過短期的特訓得到很快的提高,而是要求考生花時間對詞匯,句型,語法等等內容的整理,記憶,以及運用。

在具體寫作的過程中,考生要遇到的第一步事情應該是引言段的寫作。俗話說,萬事開頭難。很多考生不知道怎樣開頭,浪費時間,導致無法在規定時間內完成250個單詞的大作文。其實,就筆者歸納,引言段可先通過對background 的描寫來引出話題。

II Background 方法介紹

筆者就從教來的總結歸納來介紹Background的寫作,認為應該從內容同句型上同時做到補充。下面先給大家介紹下擴充背景句的方法:

1). 追根溯源法。即從題目給出的話題中找出這個現象產生的原因來擴展背景句。這種方法適合大多數的話題,考生要盡量在考前做練習,這樣在考試就可以得心應手了。

請看下面的例子:

There are social, medical and technical problems associated with the use of mobile phones. What forms do they take? Do you agree that the problems outweigh the benefits of mobile phones? (高分范文P76)

這個題目中給出的話題是mobile phone,所以考生可以從它產生的原因來考慮,就是科技的繁榮,而科技的繁榮,手機的廣泛使用是在20世紀末,這樣背景句就有內容可寫了。當然要通過相應的句型來寫了。如

… (time) witnessed …

這個背景句就可以寫成: The late 20th century witnessed the boom of science and technology, which gave rise to a series of technological innovations, including the mobile phone.

再看一例:

Nowadays, some universities offer students skills that assist them to find employment, but some people believe that the main function of a university should be to provide students with access to knowledge for its sake. What is your opinion?

這題要求大家討論大學是提供職業技能還是傳授知識。那從傳統觀點來看,大學是傳授知識的地方,為什么會提出要傳授技能呢,所以這里考生也可以用追根溯源法思考下,大家肯定可以想到是由于找工作已經成為當今教育的目的之一了,所以很多大學就轉移到以傳授技能為主了。那當然還是要結合句型,這里可以用as 引導的原因狀語從句。

參考:As job-hunting has become one of the main purposes of university education, the majority of the universities tend to offer vocational trainings to prepare the students for their future career.

2). 重述法。即對關于這個話題的當前現狀的重述。

請看一例:

Nowadays, people are facing more and more work-related stress. State the possible reasons for this phenomenon and make some recommendations about how to combat it。

本題的話題關于壓力,那考生可從當前社會現象來考慮這個問題,考生不難想出當下對壓力這一現象的情況,即很多人都在承受著或多或少的壓力。可用it is generally believed that … 形式主語的句型。

參考: It is generally believed that white-collar as well as blue-collars workers are suffering from psychological and physical stress stemming from work.

再看一例:

Environmental problem is too big for individual countries and individual people to address. In other words, we have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

本題話題為環境問題,考生也可用重述法對當前環境問題進行重述,這時,可以用In modern society/ At present, 等表時間的介詞短語來引導一個敘述句型。

參考:In modern society, environment related issues have confronted ecological scientists, government agencies and the general public. (引自雅思高分范文p16)

3). 定義法。即通過對話題詞的定義的介紹,這種方法有一定難度,考生需要有淵博的知識,才能做到對名詞的解釋,但對特別明顯的詞語,考生可借鑒這種方法。

請看一例:

The main purpose of public libraries is to provide books and they should not waste their limited resources and space on providing expensive hi-tech media such as computer software, videos and DVDs. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

本題中的話題詞為圖書館,可以解釋的詞也是圖書館比較方便容易。那么到底怎樣解釋呢,比如說圖書館在傳統意義上來看,是收藏書的地方,而現在因為科技發展,使得圖書館的意義發生改變,從而引出話題。這里同樣可以用形式主語:

It is generally believed that public libraries are places with a large collection of books; however, the digital time has given it a new means of storing and retrieving information.

III Background 句型介紹:

從以上的分析,我們發現在內容上是有方法了,不難從內容上找材料,可是如果句型積累不多的話,寫出來的句子也是無法得到高分的,所以接下來,為大家介紹下常用的高分句型。

1). It is … that …

It is … who … 強調句型

Eg It is the traditions in Beijing that attract many foreign tourists.

下面是考官范文里的句子:

It is the interaction of the two that shapes a person’s personality and dictates how that personality develops.

2). It is generally believed

It is the case that …

It is apparent that … 等形式主語

Eg It is generally believed that white-collar as well as blue-collar workers are suffering from psychological and physical stress stemming from work.

3). 狀語前置

下面是劍6的高分范文中的句子:

In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied.

Just like movie stars, they live extravagant lifestyles with huge houses and cars.

4). 時間引導的敘述句型

Lately, the problem of unemployment has been brought to popular attention that governments at all levels place it on the agenda as the first matter.

根據以上筆者的分析,考生可通過這兩個方面來做到背景句的描寫,從而在開頭就吸引考官的注意力,好的開始是成功的一半,有了好的開始,為考生在寫作中做到思路清晰,以及節省時間都打了堅實的基礎。


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