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雅思議論文寫作如何得高分

在很多考生的概念中,議論文是辯論式的文章,需要擺事實、講道理。他們認為,用“說理”性的文字來證明自己的觀點才是最具有說服力的,相對而言,用太多的個人經歷、情緒、喜好等“個性化”內容作為論據。因為缺乏“普遍適用性”不夠讓人信服。這樣的想法也不無道理,確實,有些學生的文章出現了過多的以“I”引出的個人經歷式論據,過多的談論自己經歷的某些事件,使文章偏離了辯論的初衷,反倒有點像記敘文,這就是教師需要題型學生要注意避免的問題了。
 
然而適當地在文章中穿插一些與個人經歷或個人喜好有關的一些描述,會使文章變得更富個性化色彩,語言顯得更為活潑生動,在千篇一律的說理式文章中顯得更為出眾,給考官留下好的印象。此外,個性經歷式的描述從語言說上比較具體,考生在語言組織方面也會輕松很多。那么怎樣進行個性化思路的表達呢?本文將從議論文的引言段、主體段和結尾段出發,分析一些具有個性化思路的范文,并總結一些議論文個性化表達的方案。
 
一,引言段部分的個性化表達:
一個好的引言段對議論文的作用不言而喻,比較常規的寫法是在引言段的開始對議論文的話題作背景陳述,通常是大致介紹考題中所涉及的事物或行為在當今社會的總體情況或特征。這種寫作方式中規中矩,但很難表現出個性化色彩。導致很多文章總是在用“Nowadays…”、“With the development of…”等千篇一律的套句。而個性化的表達可以使文章的背景介紹與自己的親身經歷相結合,使文章變得更為鮮活,開頭段便顯得與眾不同,引起考官的注意。下面來看一個例子:
People in the modern world are enjoying greater wealth but they are not as fit and active as they were in the past. What are the reasons? Suggest some measures to solve this problem.
個性化引言段
I keep on nodding in agreement when seeing the background information of the question. I myself have always been struggling not to be overweight. Unfortunately, like most others, I failed. As to why people nowadays are not as fit and active as they were, various factors can be identified.
 
二,主體段(理由段)中的個性化表達:
主體段(理由段)是比較難以進行個性化表達的部分,或者說在理由段進行個性化表達要特別注意“分寸”,因為如果理由段中的個性化表達過多,則會造成前文所說到的降低文章論據“普遍實用性”和說服力的結果。那么怎樣達到個性化和說服力的平衡性呢?我們可以先看兩段文字:
Some people warn that the era of the silver screen is coming to an end and that people will eventually lose interest in going to the cinema. Do you agree or disagree with this view?
個性化理由段-討論interest in going to the cinema
However, the cinemas in my home country are still full every weekend and when a new film is released we are all keen to go and watch it. In fact, many small cinemas have been rebuilt and we can now go to large centres that have six or eight cinema screens and show up to ten different films a night. An evening out at the cinema is fun and some films, particularly horror and science fiction films, are much better on the big screen.
 
There are many different types of music in the world today. Why do we need music? Is the traditional music of a country more important than the international music that is heard everywhere nowadays?
個性化理由段-討論international music重要性
However, there is one reason why international music may be more important, and that is since it is widely liked internationally, it helps unite the world. I noticed this in Korea, when I saw young Korean boys dancing in unison to modern rock music. The traditional Korean music is often too difficult, high toned and not relevant to the lives of younger people.
 
在第一段話中,作者結合自己國家的電影市場情況說,說明人們還是有興趣去電影院看電影的;在第二段話中,作者結合自己去韓國旅游的所見所聞證明了國際音樂的重要性。可以看出,這兩個主體段的理由陳述都是和個人經歷相結合的,所以文章顯得很有個性化,但卻完全不失辯論力度。這樣的理由段寫作方法也是值得教學中讓學生體會和嘗試的。
三,結尾段中的個性化表達:
在議論文寫作中,結尾段通常是觀點的重申。很多學生因為表達方式的缺乏,會覺得重述觀點是一件比較困難的事,因此文章匆忙結尾。而適當加入個性化的思路表達,可以使文章的結尾變得更加生動。比如下面這段結尾:
結尾段強調保持健康的重要性:
I believe that all of us can imagine the daring consequences of living a life without a sound body. Therefore I decide to walk home instead of taking a taxi.
 
 
總而言之,個性化的表達可以出現在文章的引言段、主體段和結尾段,這些個性化的文字與傳統說理辯論式語言一樣,都能夠達到清晰地提出或證明觀點的目的。巧妙地使用這些個性化的語言和思路,可以使文章的辯論變得“平易近人”且別具一格。

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